What is a Profession?


We at the Australian Council of Professions define a 'Profession' as:

A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recognised body of learning derived from research, education and training at a high level, and who are prepared to apply this knowledge and exercise these skills in the interest of others.  It is inherent in the definition of a Profession that a code of ethics governs the activities of each Profession.  Such codes require behaviour and practice beyond the personal moral obligations of an individual.  They define and demand high standards of behaviour in respect to the services provided to the public and in dealing with professional colleagues.  Further, these codes are enforced by the Profession and are acknowledged and accepted by the community.

Being a member of a Profession, eg a 'Professional', is generally seen as an indicator of integrity, ethics, trust and expertise.

Governments usally also understand the value that the Professions add to society; for example, the Australian Professional Standards Council (PSC) outlines in a short video the value and benefits of of the Professions to the community and the economy: www.psc.gov.au/what-is-a-profession/the-benefits-of-professions.

The PSC also references our definition of 'Professions': www.psc.gov.au/what-is-a-profession.

What is a Professional?

Traditionally, a "Professional" is someone who derives their income from their specific expertise or talent, as opposed to an untrained hobbyist or amateur.  This meaning still carries through today to areas such as sport.  However, in the Professions a "Professional" has a broader meaning, typically around some moral or ethical foundation within the practice of a specific and usually established expertise.

A Professional is a member of a Profession.  Professionals are governed by codes of ethics, and profess commitment to competence, integrity and morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their expert domain.  Professionals are accountable to those they serve and to society1 2.

What is Professionalism?

The personally held beliefs of a Professional about their own conduct as a member of a Profession and is often linked to the upholding of the principles, laws, ethics and conventions of a Profession in form of a code of practice.

Why is Professionalism still relevant?

At the invitation of our then President Don Larkin, Dr George Beaton (Partner in Beaton Capital and Associate Professor at the University of Melbourne) wrote an essay on Why Professionalism is Still Relevant.3

This essay maintains that 'ethical considerations and obligations lead to and maintain trust on the parts of those served and are the essence of professionalism.  There is no definition of professionalism—even a rough outline of professionalism’s characteristics - that does not include a central component of ethics and altruism.'

Dr Beaton contends that 'as long as professionals and professions hold on to this essence of professionalism - even, and especially, in an age of globalisation - they will survive and flourish, and professionalism will fulfil its role in serving humanity.'



1: Evetts, J., 'Sociological Analysis of Professionalism: Past, Present and Future', Comparative Sociology 10, 2011

2: Freidson, E., 'Professionalism: The Third Logic', Polity Press, London, 2001

3: Beaton, G., 'Why Professionalism is Still Relevant', .....................